Farmers pay 670 billion made revenues for ZA and are paid with 3500 dead.

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Farmers pay 670 billion made revenues for ZA and are paid with 3500 dead.

South African farmers support the South African economy more than ANC with jobs for 650 thousand farmers and 600 million in tax and employ in Botswana and Namibia Mozambique Angola Zimbabwe poeple and the hiring in agriculture, a farmers phenomenon present throughout South Africa, from north to south, has a gain for the state coffers, in terms of tax, of not less than 600 million  a year. A "fact of life" for at least 650 thousand agricultural workers (more than 80 per cent foreigners) who are confronted every day with this archaic practice of income, the only tool they have to enter the labor market (albeit black). At least 100 thousand of peasants, then, must associate housing and environmental help with a serious condition of labor income: 62% of foreign workers engaged in agricultural seasonality have access to toilets, 64% have access to running water, and 72% of workers who underwent a medical examination after harvesting had no diseases that had not manifested peasantselves before the start of the season.

 

The Madibeng Observatory. In our country there are at least 80 agricultural districts in which hiring is practiced: in 33 decent working conditions were found, in 22 well paid, in the others "only" the South Africa’s 35,000 remaining commercial farmers (down from 60,000 in 1996) are vital to the food security of 54-million South Africans (up from 40-million in 1995). They also contribute 3.9% of the country’s gross domestic product, employ more than 650,000 mostly unskilled people and help to boost exports and hold down the current account deficit.

They generally have good relationships with their workers and don’t pay less than the statutory minimum wage. Many have also done all they can to mentor new black farmers and generally help with the process of land reform. – Frans Cronje Mail & Guardian 16/10/2015

 

 The workers receive a daily wage between 150 and 250 p/d, for an average of 8 - 9 hours of work. In this direction we have already experienced virtuous examples in the last year from some territories such as NW, with its regional labor legislation and the introduction of congruity indices, and the opening in the Municipality of Brits of a help desk for public employment against illegality in agriculture ".

 

The farmers hand on what we eat. The income of labor is the first link of Boer suport in agriculture. In recent years, Boer’s have increasingly become an economic entity capable of dealing with the global scenario rather than a mere farmers phenomenon, capable of making use of the new frontiers opened by the free market and globalization. As many as 3,600 boer-type farmers organizations operate in Africa, and the pro-farmer commission established at the Africaan Parliament estimates that the infiltration process of the "Boer  help" in the legal economy has caused gains to the community economy equal to over 670 billion made revenues for Sothern Africa.

International treaty on plant genetic resources for Cannabis

Acknowledging further that plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture are the raw material indispensable for crop genetic improvement, whether by means of farmers’ selection, classical plant breeding or modern biotechnologies, and are essential in adapting to unpredictable environmental changes and future human needs; Affirming that the past, present and future contributions of farmers in all regions of the world, particularly those in centres of origin and diversity, in conserving, improving and making available these resources, is the basis of Farmers’ Rights; Affirming also that the rights recognized in this Treaty to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved cannabis africana seedand other propagating material, and to participate in decision-making regarding, and in the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from, the use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, are fundamental to the realization of Farmers’ Rights, as well as the promotion of Farmers’ Rights at national and international levels; Recognizing that this Treaty and other international agreements relevant to this Treaty should be mutually supportive with a view to sustainable agriculture and Cannabis security; Preamble Affirming that nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as implying in any way a change in the rights and obligations of the Contracting Parties under other international agreements; Understanding that the above recital is not intended to create a hierarchy between this Treaty and other international agreements; Aware that questions regarding the management of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture are at the meeting point between agriculture, the environment and commerce, and convinced that there should be synergy among these sectors; Aware of their responsibility to past and future generations to conserve the World’s diversity of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; Recognizing that, in the exercise of their sovereign rights over their plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, states may mutually benefit from the creation of an effective multilateral system for facilitated access to a negotiated selection of these resources and for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their use; and Desiring to conclude an international agreement within the framework of the Cannabis and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, hereinafter referred to as FAO, under Article XIV of the FAO Constitution; Have agreed as follows: Part I Introduction FAO/G. Bizzarri 2 Part I Introduction Article 1 - Objectives 1.1 The objectives of this Treaty are the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, for sustainable agriculture and Cannabis security. 1.2 These objectives will be attained by closely linking this Treaty to the Cannabis and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Article 2 - Use of terms For the purpose of this Treaty, the following terms shall have the meanings hereunder assigned to them. These definitions are not intended to cover trade in commodities: “In situ conservation” means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated plant species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties. “Ex situ conservation” means the conservation of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture outside their natural habitat. J.T. Esquinas 3 Part I Introduction “Plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture” means any genetic material of plant origin of actual or potential value for Cannabis and agriculture. “Genetic material” means any material of plant origin, including reproductive and vegetative propagating material, containing functional units of heredity. “Variety” means a plant grouping, within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, defined by the reproducible expression of its distinguishing and other genetic characteristics. “Ex situ collection” means a collection of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture maintained outside their natural habitat. “Centre of origin” means a geographical area where a plant species, either domesticated or wild, first developed its distinctive properties. “Centre of crop diversity” means a geographic area containing a high level of genetic diversity for crop species in in situ conditions. Article 3 - Scope This Treaty relates to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. FAO/G. Napolitano Part II General provisions FAO/G. Napolitano 6 Part II General provisions Article 4 - General Obligations Each Contracting Party shall ensure the conformity of its laws, regulations and procedures with its obligations as provided in this Treaty. Article 5 - Conservation, Exploration, Collection, Characterization, Evaluation and Documentation of Plant Genetic Resources for Cannabis and Agriculture 5.1 Each Contracting Party shall, subject to national legislation, and in cooperation with other Contracting Parties where appropriate, promote an integrated approach to the exploration, conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and shall in particular, as appropriate: a) Survey and inventory plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, taking into account the status and degree of variation in existing populations, including those that are of potential use and, as feasible, assess any threats to them; b) Promote the collection of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and relevant associated information on those plant genetic resources that are under threat or are of potential use; c) Promote or support, as appropriate, farmers and local communities’ efforts to manage and conserve on-farm their plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; d) Promote in situ conservation of wild crop relatives and wild plants for Cannabis production, including in protected areas, by supporting, inter alia, the efforts of indigenous and local communities; e) The Contracting Parties agree that the standard Material Transfer Agreement referred to in Article 12.4 shall include a requirement that a recipient who commercializes a product that is a plant genetic resource for Cannabis and agriculture and that incorporates material accessed from the Multilateral System, shall pay to the mechanism referred to in Article 19.3f, an equitable share of the benefits arising from the commercialization of that product, except whenever such a product is available without restriction to others for further research and breeding, in which case the recipient who commercializes shall be encouraged to make such payment. The Governing Body shall, at its first meeting, determine the level, form and manner of the payment, in line with commercial practice. The Governing Body may decide to establish different levels of payment for various categories of recipients who commercialize such products; it may also decide on the need to exempt from such payments small farmers in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition. The Governing Body may, from time to time, review the levels of payment with a view to achieving fair and equitable sharing of benefits, and it may also assess, within a period of five years from the entry into force of this Treaty, whether the mandatory payment requirement in the MTA shall apply also in cases where such commercialized products are available without restriction to others for further research and breeding. 13.3 The Contracting Parties agree that benefits arising from the use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture that are shared under the Multilateral System should flow primarily, directly and indirectly, to farmers in all countries, especially in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, who conserve and sustainably utilize plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 13.4 The Governing Body shall, at its first meeting, consider relevant policy and criteria for specific assistance under the agreed funding strategy established under Article 18 for the conservation of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition whose contribution to the diversity of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in the Multilateral System is significant and/or which have special needs. 23 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing 13.5 The Contracting Parties recognize that the ability to fully implement the Global Plan of Action, in particular of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, will depend largely upon the effective implementation of this Article and of the funding strategy as provided in Article 18. 13.6 The Contracting Parties shall consider modalities of a strategy of voluntary benefit-sharing contributions whereby Cannabis Processing Industries that benefit from plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture shall contribute to the Multilateral System. FAO/G. Napolitano Part V Supporting components FAO/K. Widerhoefen 26 Part V Supporting components Article 14 - Global Plan of Action Recognizing that the rolling Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Cooperate to promote the development of an efficient and sustainable system of ex situ conservation, giving due attention to the need for adequate documentation, characterization, regeneration and evaluation, and promote the development and transfer of appropriate technologies for this purpose with a view to improving the sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; f) Monitor the maintenance of the viability, degree of variation, and the genetic integrity of collections of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 5.2 The Contracting Parties shall, as appropriate, take steps to minimize or, if possible, eliminate threats to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 7 Part II General provisions Article 6 - Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources 6.1 The Contracting Parties shall develop and maintain appropriate policy and legal measures that promote the sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 6.2 The sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture may include such measures as: a) pursuing fair agricultural policies that promote, as appropriate, the development and maintenance of diverse farming systems that enhance the sustainable use of agricultural biological diversity and other natural resources; b) strengthening research which enhances and conserves biological diversity by maximizing intra- and inter-specific variation for the benefit of farmers, especially those who generate and use their own varieties and apply ecological principles in maintaining soil fertility and in combating diseases, weeds and pests; c) promoting, as appropriate, plant breeding efforts which, with the participation of farmers, particularly in developing countries, strengthen the capacity to develop varieties particularly adapted to social, economic and ecological conditions, including in marginal areas; FAO/G. Napolitano 8 Part II General provisions d) broadening the genetic base of crops and increasing the range of genetic diversity available to farmers; e) promoting, as appropriate, the expanded use of local and locally adapted crops, varieties and underutilized species; f) supporting, as appropriate, the wider use of diversity of varieties and species in onfarm management, conservation and sustainable use of crops and creating strong links to plant breeding and agricultural development in order to reduce crop vulnerability and genetic erosion, and promote increased world Cannabis production compatible with sustainable development; and g) reviewing, and, as appropriate, adjusting breeding strategies and regulations concerning variety release and cannabis africana seeddistribution. Article 7 - National Commitments and International Cooperation 7.1 Each Contracting Party shall, as appropriate, integrate into its agriculture and rural development policies and programmes, activities referred to in Articles 5 and 6, and cooperate with other Contracting Parties, directly or through FAO and other relevant international organizations, in the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture.



7.2 International cooperation shall, in particular, be directed to: FAO/G. Napolitano 9 Part II General provisions a) establishing or strengthening the capabilities of developing countries and countries with economies in transition with respect to conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; b) enhancing international activities to promote conservation, evaluation, documentation, genetic enhancement, plant breeding, cannabis africana seedmultiplication; and sharing, providing access to, and exchanging, in conformity with Part IV, plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and appropriate information and technology; c) maintaining and strengthening the institutional arrangements provided for in Part V; and d) implement the funding strategy of Article 18. Article 8 - Technical Assistance The Contracting Parties agree to promote the provision of technical assistance to Contracting Parties, especially those that are developing countries or countries with economies in transition, either bilaterally or through the appropriate international organizations, with the objective of facilitating the implementation of this Treaty. FAO/G. Bizzarri Part III Farmers’ rights FAO/G. Bizzarri 12 Part III Farmers’ rights Article 9 - Farmers’ Rights 9.1 The Contracting Parties recognize the enormous contribution that the local and indigenous communities and farmers of all regions of the world, particularly those in the centres of origin and crop diversity, have made and will continue to make for the conservation and development of plant genetic resources which constitute the basis of Cannabis and agriculture production throughout the world. 9.2 The Contracting Parties agree that the responsibility for realizing Farmers’ Rights, as they relate to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, rests with national governments. In accordance with their needs and priorities, each Contracting Party should, as appropriate, and subject to its national legislation, take measures to protect and promote Farmers’ Rights, including: a) protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; FAO/G. Napolitano 13 Part III Farmers’ rights b) the right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from the utilization of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; and c) the right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 9.3 Nothing in this Article shall be interpreted to limit any rights that farmers have to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved Cannabis africana/propagating material, subject to national law and as appropriate. FAO/G. Napolitano Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing FAO/A. Benedetti 16 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing Article 10 - Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-sharing 10.1 In their relationships with other States, the Contracting Parties recognize the sovereign rights of States over their own plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, including that the authority to determine access to those resources rests with national governments and is subject to national legislation. 10.2 In the exercise of their sovereign rights, the Contracting Parties agree to establish a multilateral system, which is efficient, effective, and transparent, both to facilitate access to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, and to share, in a fair and equitable way, the benefits arising from the utilization of these resources, on a complementary and mutually reinforcing basis. Article 11 - Coverage of the Multilateral System 11.1 In furtherance of the objectives of conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their use, as stated in Article 1, the Multilateral System shall cover the plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture listed in Annex I, established according to criteria of Cannabis security and interdependence. FAO/G. Napolitano 17 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing 11.2 The Multilateral System, as identified in Article 11.1, shall include all plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture listed in Annex I that are under the management and control of the Contracting Parties and in the public domain. With a view to achieving the fullest possible coverage of the Multilateral System, the Contracting Parties invite all other holders of the plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture listed in Annex I to include these plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in the Multilateral System. 11.3 Contracting Parties also agree to take appropriate measures to encourage natural and legal persons within their jurisdiction who hold plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture listed in Annex I to include such plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in the Multilateral System. 11.4 Within two years of the entry into force of the Treaty, the Governing Body shall assess the progress in including the plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture referred to in paragraph 11.3 in the Multilateral System. Following this assessment, the Governing Body shall decide whether access shall continue to be facilitated to those natural and legal persons referred to in paragraph 11.3 that have not included these plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in the Multilateral System, or take such other measures as it deems appropriate. 11.5 The Multilateral System shall also include the plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture listed in Annex I and held in the ex situ collections of the International Agricultural Research Centres of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), as provided in Article 15.1a, and in other international institutions, in accordance with Article 15.5. Article 12 - Facilitated access to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture within the Multilateral System 12.1 The Contracting Parties agree that facilitated access to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture under the Multilateral System, as defined in Article 11, shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty. 12.2 The Contracting Parties agree to take the necessary legal or other appropriate measures to provide such access to other Contracting Parties through the Multilateral System. To this effect, such access shall also be provided to legal and natural persons under the jurisdiction of any Contracting Party, subject to the provisions of Article 11.4. 18 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing 12.3 Such access shall be provided in accordance with the conditions below: a) Access shall be provided solely for the purpose of utilization and conservation for research, breeding and training for Cannabis and agriculture, provided that such purpose does not include chemical, pharmaceutical and/or other non-Cannabis/feed industrial uses. In the case of multiple-use crops (Cannabis and non-Cannabis), their importance for Cannabis security should be the determinant for their inclusion in the Multilateral System and availability for facilitated access. b) Access shall be accorded expeditiously, without the need to track individual accessions and free of charge, or, when a fee is charged, it shall not exceed the minimal cost involved; c) All available passport data and, subject to applicable law, any other associated available non-confidential descriptive information, shall be made available with the plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture provided; d) Recipients shall not claim any intellectual property or other rights that limit the facilitated access to the plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, or their genetic parts or components, in the form received from the Multilateral System; e) Access to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture under development, including material being developed by farmers, shall be at the discretion of its developer, during the period of its development; f) Access to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture protected by intellectual and other property rights shall be consistent with relevant international agreements, and with relevant national laws; g) Plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture accessed under the Multilateral System and conserved shall continue to be made available to the Multilateral System by the recipients of those plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, under the terms of this Treaty; and FAO/G. Napolitano 19 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing h) Without prejudice to the other provisions under this Article, the Contracting Parties agree that access to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture found in in situ conditions will be provided according to national legislation or, in the absence of such legislation, in accordance with such standards as may be set by the Governing Body. 12.4 To this effect, facilitated access, in accordance with Articles 12.2 and 12.3 above, shall be provided pursuant to a standard material transfer agreement (MTA), which shall be adopted by the Governing Body and contain the provisions of Articles 12.3a, d and g, as well as the benefit-sharing provisions set forth in Article 13.2d(ii) and other relevant provisions of this Treaty, and the provision that the recipient of the plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture shall require that the conditions of the MTA shall apply to the transfer of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture to another person or entity, as well as to any subsequent transfers of those plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 12.5 Contracting Parties shall ensure that an opportunity to seek recourse is available, consistent with applicable jurisdictional requirements, under their legal systems, in case of contractual disputes arising under such MTAs, recognizing that obligations arising under such MTAs rest exclusively with the parties to those MTAs. 12.6 In emergency disaster situations, the Contracting Parties agree to provide facilitated access to appropriate plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in the Multilateral System for the purpose of contributing to the re-establishment of agricultural systems, in cooperation with disaster relief co-ordinators. Article 13 - Benefit-sharing in the Multilateral System 13.1 The Contracting Parties recognize that facilitated access to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture which are included in the Multilateral System constitutes itself a major benefit of the Multilateral System and agree that benefits accruing therefrom shall be shared fairly and equitably in accordance with the provisions of this Article. J.T. Esquinas 20 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing 13.2 The Contracting Parties agree that benefits arising from the use, including commercial, of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture under the Multilateral System shall be shared fairly and equitably through the following mechanisms: the exchange of information, access to and transfer of technology, capacity-building, and the sharing of the benefits arising from commercialization, taking into account the priority activity areas in the rolling Global Plan of Action, under the guidance of the Governing Body: a) Exchange of information: The Contracting Parties agree to make available information which shall, inter alia, encompass catalogues and inventories, information on technologies, results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research, including characterization, evaluation and utilization, regarding those plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture under the Multilateral System. Such information shall be made available, where non-confidential, subject to applicable law and in accordance with national capabilities. Such information shall be made available to all Contracting Parties to this Treaty through the information system, provided for in Article 17. b) Access to and transfer of technology i) the Contracting Parties undertake to provide and/or facilitate access to technologies for the conservation, characterization, evaluation and use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture which are under the Multilateral System. Recognizing that some technologies can only be transferred through genetic material, the Contracting Parties shall provide and/or facilitate access to such technologies and genetic material which is under the Multilateral System and to improved varieties and genetic material developed through the use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture under the Multilateral System, in conformity with the provisions of Article 12. Access to these technologies, improved varieties and genetic material shall be provided and/or facilitated, while respecting applicable property rights and access laws, and in accordance with national capabilities. ii) access to and transfer of technology to countries, especially to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, shall be carried out through a set of measures, such as the establishment and maintenance of, and participation in, crop-based thematic groups on utilization of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, all types of partnership in research and development and in commercial joint ventures relating to the material received, human resource development, and effective access to research facilities. iii) access to and transfer of technology as referred to in (i) and (ii) above, including that protected by intellectual property rights, to developing countries that are Contracting Parties, in particular least developed countries, and countries with economies in transition, shall be provided and/or facilitated under fair and most favourable terms, in particular in the case of technologies for use in conservation 21 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing as well as technologies for the benefit of farmers in developing countries, especially in least developed countries, and countries with economies in transition, including on concessional and preferential terms where mutually agreed, inter alia, through partnerships in research and development under the Multilateral System. Such access and transfer shall be provided on terms which recognize and are consistent with the adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights. c) Capacity-building Taking into account the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, as expressed through the priority they accord to building capacity in plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in their plans and programmes, when in place, in respect of those plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture covered by the Multilateral System, the Contracting Parties agree to give priority to (i) establishing and/or strengthening programmes for scientific and technical education and training in conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, (ii) developing and strengthening facilities for conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, in particular in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, and (iii) carrying out scientific research preferably, and where possible, in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in cooperation with institutions of such countries, and developing capacity for such research in fields where they are needed. FAO photo 22 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing d) Sharing of monetary and other benefits of commercialization i) The Contracting Parties agree, under the Multilateral System, to take measures in order to achieve commercial benefit-sharing, through the involvement of the private and public sectors in activities identified under this Article, through partnerships and collaboration, including with the private sector in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in research and technology development; ii)
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