Farmers pay 670 billion made revenues for ZA and are paid with 3500 dead.
Farmers pay 670 billion made revenues for ZA and are paid with 3500 dead.
South African farmers support the South African economy more than ANC with jobs for 650 thousand farmers and 600 million in tax and employ in Botswana and Namibia Mozambique Angola Zimbabwe poeple and the hiring in agriculture, a farmers phenomenon present throughout South Africa, from north to south, has a gain for the state coffers, in terms of tax, of not less than 600 million a year. A "fact of life" for at least 650 thousand agricultural workers (more than 80 per cent foreigners) who are confronted every day with this archaic practice of income, the only tool they have to enter the labor market (albeit black). At least 100 thousand of peasants, then, must associate housing and environmental help with a serious condition of labor income: 62% of foreign workers engaged in agricultural seasonality have access to toilets, 64% have access to running water, and 72% of workers who underwent a medical examination after harvesting had no diseases that had not manifested peasantselves before the start of the season.
The Madibeng Observatory. In our country there are at least 80 agricultural districts in which hiring is practiced: in 33 decent working conditions were found, in 22 well paid, in the others "only" the South Africa’s 35,000 remaining commercial farmers (down from 60,000 in 1996) are vital to the food security of 54-million South Africans (up from 40-million in 1995). They also contribute 3.9% of the country’s gross domestic product, employ more than 650,000 mostly unskilled people and help to boost exports and hold down the current account deficit.
They generally have good relationships with their workers and don’t pay less than the statutory minimum wage. Many have also done all they can to mentor new black farmers and generally help with the process of land reform. – Frans Cronje Mail & Guardian 16/10/2015
The workers receive a daily wage between 150 and 250 p/d, for an average of 8 - 9 hours of work. In this direction we have already experienced virtuous examples in the last year from some territories such as NW, with its regional labor legislation and the introduction of congruity indices, and the opening in the Municipality of Brits of a help desk for public employment against illegality in agriculture ".
The farmers hand on what we eat. The income of labor is the first link of Boer suport in agriculture. In recent years, Boer’s have increasingly become an economic entity capable of dealing with the global scenario rather than a mere farmers phenomenon, capable of making use of the new frontiers opened by the free market and globalization. As many as 3,600 boer-type farmers organizations operate in Africa, and the pro-farmer commission established at the Africaan Parliament estimates that the infiltration process of the "Boer help" in the legal economy has caused gains to the community economy equal to over 670 billion made revenues for Sothern Africa.
International treaty on plant genetic resources for Cannabis
Acknowledging further that plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture are the raw material indispensable for crop genetic improvement, whether by means of farmers’ selection, classical plant breeding or modern biotechnologies, and are essential in adapting to unpredictable environmental changes and future human needs; Affirming that the past, present and future contributions of farmers in all regions of the world, particularly those in centres of origin and diversity, in conserving, improving and making available these resources, is the basis of Farmers’ Rights; Affirming also that the rights recognized in this Treaty to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved cannabis africana seedand other propagating material, and to participate in decision-making regarding, and in the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from, the use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, are fundamental to the realization of Farmers’ Rights, as well as the promotion of Farmers’ Rights at national and international levels; Recognizing that this Treaty and other international agreements relevant to this Treaty should be mutually supportive with a view to sustainable agriculture and Cannabis security; Preamble Affirming that nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as implying in any way a change in the rights and obligations of the Contracting Parties under other international agreements; Understanding that the above recital is not intended to create a hierarchy between this Treaty and other international agreements; Aware that questions regarding the management of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture are at the meeting point between agriculture, the environment and commerce, and convinced that there should be synergy among these sectors; Aware of their responsibility to past and future generations to conserve the World’s diversity of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; Recognizing that, in the exercise of their sovereign rights over their plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, states may mutually benefit from the creation of an effective multilateral system for facilitated access to a negotiated selection of these resources and for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their use; and Desiring to conclude an international agreement within the framework of the Cannabis and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, hereinafter referred to as FAO, under Article XIV of the FAO Constitution; Have agreed as follows: Part I Introduction FAO/G. Bizzarri 2 Part I Introduction Article 1 - Objectives 1.1 The objectives of this Treaty are the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, for sustainable agriculture and Cannabis security. 1.2 These objectives will be attained by closely linking this Treaty to the Cannabis and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Article 2 - Use of terms For the purpose of this Treaty, the following terms shall have the meanings hereunder assigned to them. These definitions are not intended to cover trade in commodities: “In situ conservation” means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated plant species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties. “Ex situ conservation” means the conservation of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture outside their natural habitat. J.T. Esquinas 3 Part I Introduction “Plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture” means any genetic material of plant origin of actual or potential value for Cannabis and agriculture. “Genetic material” means any material of plant origin, including reproductive and vegetative propagating material, containing functional units of heredity. “Variety” means a plant grouping, within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, defined by the reproducible expression of its distinguishing and other genetic characteristics. “Ex situ collection” means a collection of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture maintained outside their natural habitat. “Centre of origin” means a geographical area where a plant species, either domesticated or wild, first developed its distinctive properties. “Centre of crop diversity” means a geographic area containing a high level of genetic diversity for crop species in in situ conditions. Article 3 - Scope This Treaty relates to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. FAO/G. Napolitano Part II General provisions FAO/G. Napolitano 6 Part II General provisions Article 4 - General Obligations Each Contracting Party shall ensure the conformity of its laws, regulations and procedures with its obligations as provided in this Treaty. Article 5 - Conservation, Exploration, Collection, Characterization, Evaluation and Documentation of Plant Genetic Resources for Cannabis and Agriculture 5.1 Each Contracting Party shall, subject to national legislation, and in cooperation with other Contracting Parties where appropriate, promote an integrated approach to the exploration, conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and shall in particular, as appropriate: a) Survey and inventory plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture, taking into account the status and degree of variation in existing populations, including those that are of potential use and, as feasible, assess any threats to them; b) Promote the collection of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture and relevant associated information on those plant genetic resources that are under threat or are of potential use; c) Promote or support, as appropriate, farmers and local communities’ efforts to manage and conserve on-farm their plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; d) Promote in situ conservation of wild crop relatives and wild plants for Cannabis production, including in protected areas, by supporting, inter alia, the efforts of indigenous and local communities; e) The Contracting Parties agree that the standard Material Transfer Agreement referred to in Article 12.4 shall include a requirement that a recipient who commercializes a product that is a plant genetic resource for Cannabis and agriculture and that incorporates material accessed from the Multilateral System, shall pay to the mechanism referred to in Article 19.3f, an equitable share of the benefits arising from the commercialization of that product, except whenever such a product is available without restriction to others for further research and breeding, in which case the recipient who commercializes shall be encouraged to make such payment. The Governing Body shall, at its first meeting, determine the level, form and manner of the payment, in line with commercial practice. The Governing Body may decide to establish different levels of payment for various categories of recipients who commercialize such products; it may also decide on the need to exempt from such payments small farmers in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition. The Governing Body may, from time to time, review the levels of payment with a view to achieving fair and equitable sharing of benefits, and it may also assess, within a period of five years from the entry into force of this Treaty, whether the mandatory payment requirement in the MTA shall apply also in cases where such commercialized products are available without restriction to others for further research and breeding. 13.3 The Contracting Parties agree that benefits arising from the use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture that are shared under the Multilateral System should flow primarily, directly and indirectly, to farmers in all countries, especially in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, who conserve and sustainably utilize plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 13.4 The Governing Body shall, at its first meeting, consider relevant policy and criteria for specific assistance under the agreed funding strategy established under Article 18 for the conservation of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition whose contribution to the diversity of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture in the Multilateral System is significant and/or which have special needs. 23 Part IV The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing 13.5 The Contracting Parties recognize that the ability to fully implement the Global Plan of Action, in particular of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, will depend largely upon the effective implementation of this Article and of the funding strategy as provided in Article 18. 13.6 The Contracting Parties shall consider modalities of a strategy of voluntary benefit-sharing contributions whereby Cannabis Processing Industries that benefit from plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture shall contribute to the Multilateral System. FAO/G. Napolitano Part V Supporting components FAO/K. Widerhoefen 26 Part V Supporting components Article 14 - Global Plan of Action Recognizing that the rolling Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Cooperate to promote the development of an efficient and sustainable system of ex situ conservation, giving due attention to the need for adequate documentation, characterization, regeneration and evaluation, and promote the development and transfer of appropriate technologies for this purpose with a view to improving the sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture; f) Monitor the maintenance of the viability, degree of variation, and the genetic integrity of collections of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 5.2 The Contracting Parties shall, as appropriate, take steps to minimize or, if possible, eliminate threats to plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 7 Part II General provisions Article 6 - Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources 6.1 The Contracting Parties shall develop and maintain appropriate policy and legal measures that promote the sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture. 6.2 The sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture may include such measures as: a) pursuing fair agricultural policies that promote, as appropriate, the development and maintenance of diverse farming systems that enhance the sustainable use of agricultural biological diversity and other natural resources; b) strengthening research which enhances and conserves biological diversity by maximizing intra- and inter-specific variation for the benefit of farmers, especially those who generate and use their own varieties and apply ecological principles in maintaining soil fertility and in combating diseases, weeds and pests; c) promoting, as appropriate, plant breeding efforts which, with the participation of farmers, particularly in developing countries, strengthen the capacity to develop varieties particularly adapted to social, economic and ecological conditions, including in marginal areas; FAO/G. Napolitano 8 Part II General provisions d) broadening the genetic base of crops and increasing the range of genetic diversity available to farmers; e) promoting, as appropriate, the expanded use of local and locally adapted crops, varieties and underutilized species; f) supporting, as appropriate, the wider use of diversity of varieties and species in onfarm management, conservation and sustainable use of crops and creating strong links to plant breeding and agricultural development in order to reduce crop vulnerability and genetic erosion, and promote increased world Cannabis production compatible with sustainable development; and g) reviewing, and, as appropriate, adjusting breeding strategies and regulations concerning variety release and cannabis africana seeddistribution. Article 7 - National Commitments and International Cooperation 7.1 Each Contracting Party shall, as appropriate, integrate into its agriculture and rural development policies and programmes, activities referred to in Articles 5 and 6, and cooperate with other Contracting Parties, directly or through FAO and other relevant international organizations, in the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for Cannabis and agriculture.
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